The Planning process in Brookfield has just begun. In many ways, formal adoption of the 2020 Master Plan is a first step, not the last. Without continuing action to implement and update this Plan, Village efforts up to this point will have a minimal lasting impact.
The 2020 Master Plan sets forth an agreed-upon road map for the next fifteen years or so, taking the Village to the year 2020. It is the product of considerable efforts on the part of the Project Advisory Committee (PAC) and Village Board. The final Plan represents the consensus of all involved.
There are several requirements for effective implementation of the 2020 Master Plan. The basic components are highlighted below. In addition to these basic components, Appendix A – Action Agenda outlines a more detailed actions and steps aimed specifically at implementing the recommendations of the 2020 Master Plan.
Immediately after adoption of this Plan by the Village of Brookfield, the 2020 Master Plan should be introduced by the Planning Advisory Committee to key organizations such as the Brookfield Chamber of Commerce, the Brookfield Public Library, and other interested groups and organizations. Popularizing this Plan is an important first step in implementation.
The Village should be guided by a suggested agenda of administrative actions that will help establish a policy framework aligned with the recommendations of the 2020 Master Plan.
These are all high-priority, early action projects which largely represent public policy or administrative decisions. They do not require a significant new allocation of funds, and they should all be undertaken within a relatively short time frame. These actions relate to revising and updating local codes and ordinances, follow-up studies and related administrative actions.
Each of these implementation components is discussed below.
The Village should review and revise its regulatory measures, mainly the zoning ordinance, which can enforce this Plan’s policies and recommendations.
The Village should utilize project scheduling devices, such as the Capital Improvements Program, which allow implementation of the most important public improvements on a priority system, while staying within budgetary constraints.
Review and Update
This Plan should be subjected to a monitoring process and should be updated periodically to continually reflect local aspirations and opportunities.
- Form a strong organizational framework for undertaking the recommendations in this Plan. This should include the identification of an appropriate business organization with which the Village could work, such as the Brookfield Chamber of Commerce.
- Consider appropriate development and developer incentive programs (such as low interest loans and tax abatements) as necessary to initiate a high level of investment and development in the Village’s corridors and TOD/pedestrian areas. The Village should consider the use of Tax Increment Financing (TIF) districts as a strong tool for economic development. The Village already has a number of Special Service Areas (SSAs) that have been successful. The Village should consider a combination of TIF and SSAs to assist with economic development in targeted areas.
- Continue to create organizational capacity to undertake and direct economic and community development on the municipal level, perhaps creating a special employment position at the Village to direct such efforts. In addition, the Village should further utilize existing resources, such as Cook County’s economic development department, the West Suburban Chamber of Commerce, the West Suburban Mayor’s Conference, and the like. These types of affiliations bring additional technical resources to assist the Village in its efforts.
- Highly prioritize working with the business community, businesses and land owners to realize economic change and physical improvement.
- Promote business attraction; retention of existing businesses should be a priority where appropriate to the surrounding land-uses.
- Implement a detailed site inventory program to identify parcels available for acquisition and/or redevelopment. Where possible, small parcels should be consolidated to form larger parcels that are appropriate for development.
Housing and Residential Areas
- Closely monitor building conditions in the residential areas and strictly enforce all zoning, building, fire safety, and occupancy codes as they apply to all structures.
- Utilize the land-use plan and the detailed subarea plans, particularly the Downtown and Eight Corners plans, to guide the location, type and amount of multi-family housing.
- Revise the existing zoning regulations to ensure the protection of sound existing development, to reduce adverse influences, and to establish setback, height, and density requirements for new residential development.
- Establish a home maintenance grant or low-interest loan program for senior citizens and low-income residents to assist with the cost of home repairs.
- Utilize the Land-Use Plan to establish basic functional roles for the various commercial areas.
- Implement the recommendations put forth in the Ogden Avenue, 31st Street, Downtown and Eight Corners Subarea Plans.
- Update the Village’s Zoning Code and map to reflect new commercial/mixed use area designations.
- Introduce standards and guidelines for appearance through the establishment of a design guidelines program.
- Participate in economic development programs aimed at attracting attention to business and development opportunities within Brookfield.
Transportation and Community Facilities
- Work with Metra and the BNSF in future planning of the Congress Park Station area to evaluate the future development and discuss the costs associated with improving, closing, or moving the Congress Park Station. If for financial or operational reasons the station can no longer operate, the Village should explore redevelopment options for the station area.
- Attempt to secure available funds for the development of the Village’s proposed Pace bus/trolley system and for additional bicycle routes/trails.
- Implement the specific recommendations for transportation improvements and community facilities set forth in each of the subarea plans.
- Work with Metra and the BNSF to explore options for commuter parking opportunities and future improvements to the Brookfield and Hollywood Stations.
Following adoption of the 2020 Master Plan, the Village should review and update the various development controls, including zoning, subdivision regulations, and other related codes and ordinances. It is essential that all development controls be consistent with, and complement, the 2020 Master Plan.
Capital Improvements Program
Another strong tool for implementing the 2020 Master Plan is the Capital Improvements Program (CIP). It establishes priorities and schedules for all public improvement projects within a five-year period.
The CIP typically schedules the implementation of a range of specific projects related to the 2020 Master Plan, particularly the restoration and upgrading of existing utilities and infrastructure facilities, including the water system, sanitary sewers, storm water facilities, and the street system. Expansion or improvement of public works facilities would also be included in the CIP.
Brookfield’s financial resources will always be limited and public dollars must be spent wisely. The CIP would allow the Village to provide the most desirable public improvements, such as street repairs, yet stay within budget restraints.
Review and Revision
The 2020 Master Plan is not a static document. The Planning and Implementation processes should be continuous. The need for Plan amendments is the result of many community influences. Most frequently, these are brought about by changes in attitudes or emerging needs not forseen at the time of Plan adoption. The following paragraphs describe the procedures that apply to amending the 2020 Master Plan.
Day-to-Day Monitoring and Administration
In order for this Plan to be maintained and updated in a timely manner, the designation of an agency responsible for coordinating planning activities, receiving community input and comments, and providing and disseminating information regarding the 2020 Master Plan is required. While the Planning and Zoning Commission and the Village Board are ultimately responsible for implementing this Plan, Village staff are the most appropriate group to carry out the daily activities of administration. The Village shall:
- Make copies of this Plan document available for public purchase.
- Provide assistance to the public in explaining this Plan and its relationship to private and public development projects and other proposals, as appropriate.
- Assist the Village Board in the day-to-day administration, interpretation and application of this plan.
- Maintain a list of current possible amendments, issues, or needs that may be a subject of change, addition, or deletion from the 2020 Master Plan.
- Coordinate with, and assist, the Village Board in the Plan amendment process.
PLAN REVIEW AND PROGRESS REPORTING
Although a proposal to amend the Plan can be brought forth by petition at any time, the Village should regularly undertake a systematic review of the Plan. Although an annual review is desirable, the Village should initiate review of the Plan at least every two to three years. Ideally, this review should coincide with the preparation of the annual budget and capital improvement program. In this manner, recommendations or changes relating to capital improvements or other programs can be considered as part of the upcoming commitments for the fiscal year. Routine examination of the Plan will help ensure that the planning program remains relevant to community needs and aspirations.
FUNDING SOURCES AND IMPLEMENTATION TECHNIQUES
many of the recommended actions called for in the 2020 Master Plan can
be implemented through administrative and policy decisions or can be
funded through normal municipal programs, other projects will require
special technical and/or financial assistance.
This section identifies several of the local, state and federal resources and programs that are available for assisting in the implementation of key Plan recommendations.
the 2020 Master Plan generally endorses the traditional role of the
Village in the community improvement process, it is suggested that the
Village consider taking a more active leadership role in promoting,
coordinating and facilitating the development process. For example, the
Village might offer technical assistance and support to property owners
or developers of redevelopment projects that meet the guidelines and
foster the objectives of the 2020 Master Plan. In blocks where the
Village owns land, the Village might coordinate with adjacent and
nearby property owners to assemble larger, more desirable sites for new
development. The Village might assist in the preparation of developer
“Requests for Proposals,” and might assist in the review and evaluation
of proposals for key projects.
Several techniques for implementing complex improvement and redevelopment projects are highlighted below. In general, the Village has been successful in seeking out funding from local, state and federal sources for financing a range of projects throughout the community. However, additional local financing tools are necessary for addressing several of the principal recommendations of the 2020 Master Plan.
The Village has several Special Service Areas (SSAs) in place that are generating revenue for improvements within the SSA boundaries. Listed below are basic descriptions of other programs that Brookfield may want to consider for accomplishing the 2020 Master Plan goals.
GENERAL RESOURCES AND FUNDING TOOLS
Communities have a number of general sources of revenue that can be applied to any corporate purpose, including improvements that will benefit the community as a whole. The largest of these is normally the general-purpose property tax, which primarily funds the Village’s General Revenue Fund. Others include state income tax rebates, motor fuel tax funds, public utility taxes, hotel/motel tax, retailers’ occupational tax, plus various fees, fines and other receipts.
Municipal bonds may also be considered for special projects during various phases of the implementation of the 2020 Master Plan that may require more long-term financing. One type of bond that could be considered for infrastructure improvement projects is the special assessment bond. These bonds are issued to finance improvements that are to be paid for by special assessments against benefited properties. Bond obligations are payable only from the special assessment receipts, are not backed by general taxes and usually carry higher interest rates.
TAX INCREMENT FINANCING (TIF)
In January 1977, tax increment financing (TIF) was made possible by the Illinois General Assembly through passage of the Tax Increment Allocation Redevelopment Act. The Act provides a means for municipalities, after the approval of a redevelopment plan and project, to redevelop blighted, conservation, or industrial park conservation areas and to finance redevelopment project costs (sometimes referred to as “Project Costs" or “Redevelopment Project Costs”) with incremental property tax revenues. "Incremental Property Tax" or "Incremental Property Taxes" are derived from the increase in the current equalized assessed valuation (EAV) of real property within the Project Area over and above the "Certified Initial EAV" of the real property. Any increase in EAV is then multiplied by the current tax rate which results in Incremental Property Taxes. A decline in current EAV does not result in a negative Incremental Property Tax.
To finance Project Costs, a municipality may issue obligations secured by estimated Incremental Property Taxes to be generated within the project area. In addition, a municipality may pledge towards payment of such obligations any part or any combination of the following: (a) net revenues of all or part of any redevelopment project; (b) taxes levied and collected on any or all property in the municipality; (c) the full faith and credit of the municipality; (d) a mortgage on part or all of the redevelopment project; or (e) any other taxes or anticipated receipts that the municipality may lawfully pledge.
Tax increment financing does not generate tax revenues by increasing tax rates; it is a financing mechanism that allows the municipality to capture, for a certain number of years, the new tax revenues generated by the enhanced valuation of properties resulting from the municipality’s redevelopment improvements and activities, various redevelopment projects, and the reassessment of properties. Under TIF, all taxing districts continue to receive property taxes levied on the initial valuation of properties within the redevelopment project area. Additionally, taxing districts can receive distributions of surplus Incremental Property Taxes when annual Incremental Property Taxes received exceed any principal and interest obligations for that year and expected redevelopment project cost expenditures necessary to implement the Redevelopment Plan. Taxing districts also benefit from the increased property tax base after Project Costs and obligations are paid.
2020 MASTER DISTRICT DESIGNATIONS
Many economic development financing and resource tools are based on the principle of establishing geographic boundaries for a “redevelopment area” for the purposes of accomplishing complex, coordinated, comprehensive and timely improvement projects and programs. These economic development tools are commonly used by communities for established central business districts, mixed use areas, such as transit-oriented developments and industrial areas. Individually and in combination, these economic development tools provide flexibility for achieving financing and technical assistance for the “hard” and “soft” component strategies of community revitalization and promotion. The use of one or more of these financing tools is strongly recommended for the implementation of the Village’s 2020 Master Plan.
BUSINESS DISTRICT DESIGNATION
Business district development and redevelopment is authorized by Division 74.3 of the Municipal Code of the State of Illinois. A municipality may designate, after public hearings, an area of the municipality as a Business District. While business district designation does not provide a funding source, it empowers a municipality to carry out a business district development or redevelopment plan through the following actions:
- Approve all development and redevelopment proposals.
- Exercise the use of eminent domain for the acquisition of real and personal property for the purpose of a development or redevelopment project.
- Acquire, manage, convey or otherwise dispose of real and personal property acquired pursuant to the provisions of a
development or redevelopment plan.
- Apply for and accept capital grants and loans from the United States and the State of Illinois, or any instrumentality of the United States or the State, for business district development and redevelopment.
- Borrow funds as it may be deemed necessary for the purpose of business district development and redevelopment, and in this connection issue such obligation or revenue bonds as it shall be deemed necessary, subject to applicable statutory limitations.
- Enter into contracts with any public or private agency or person.
- Sell, lease, trade or improve such real property as may be acquired in connection with business district development and redevelopment plans.
- Expend such public funds as may be necessary for the planning, execution and implementation of the business district plans.
- Establish by ordinance or resolution procedures for the planning, execution and implementation of business district plans.
- Create a Business District Development and Redevelopment Commission to act as an agent for the municipality for the purposes of business district development and redevelopment.
COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATIONS
Many communities use Special Service Areas or Tax Increment Financing (as appropriate) to fund the start up and/or operation of a community development corporation (CDC) to oversee a range of redevelopment activities for a specific geographic area, particularly commercial areas and central business districts. A central business district CDC is typically an independently chartered organization, often times with not-for-profit status that is governed by a board of directors. The directors typically bring expertise in real estate or business development along with a demonstrated commitment to the community. CDCs are often funded through public-private partnerships with financial commitments from local financial institutions or businesses and a public funding source (TIF, SSA, etc.) to provide for both operating expenses and programs, as appropriate. CDCs may undertake traditional chamber of commerce-like activities such as marketing, promotion, workforce development, information management, and technical assistance to small businesses, but may also administer loan programs or acquire and redevelop property in the community. Many communities create CDCs under the umbrella structure of an established chamber of commerce in the community so that missions are complementary and do not overlap. An example of a distinctive CDC activity is the facilitation or administration of a revolving loan fund or a community lending pool capitalized by commitments from local financial institutions to provide low-interest/low-cost loans. Such funds typically target both new and expanding businesses for such redevelopment activities as interior improvements, façade and exterior improvements, building additions, site improvements, etc. Some state and federal small business assistance programs are structured to work in combination with CDC-administered loan programs. Another distinctive activity of a CDC is property acquisition and redevelopment, which is most successful when the organization is mature in both expertise and capacity (particularly if the CDC intends to manage property after redevelopment).
TRANSPORTATION AND INFRASTRUCTURE IMPROVEMENTS
Based on the types of improvements recommended in the 2020 Master Plan, the funding sources that will most likely be applicable to Brookfield are programs of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21), including ITEP, CMAQ and STP Programs. TEA-21 was appropriated in 1998 as a successor to the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) and is currently funded for five years. The TEA-21 programs are administered through various regional and state agencies and are supported by federal revenues. While the details of project eligibility vary from program to program, they all generally require that a project have a local sponsor (the Village of Brookfield), and some evidence of local support of the project. Brief descriptions of the component programs of TEA-21 are described below.
It should be noted that these transportation and infrastructure programs might be applied in combination with one or more funding sources described under other funding categories.
Illinois Transportation Enhancement Program (ITEP)
This funding source is administered by the Illinois Department of Transportation and is a set-aside fund from the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21). Among the projects that are eligible for this funding include bicycle/pedestrian facilities, streetscaping, landscaping, historic preservation and projects that control or remove outdoor advertising. Federal reimbursement is available for up to 50 percent of the cost of right-of-way and easement acquisition and 80 percent of the cost for preliminary engineering, utility relocations, construction engineering and construction costs.
Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program (CMAQ)
The CMAQ program is also part of TEA-21 and it focuses on projects that provide solutions to regional congestion and air quality problems. Eligible project types include transit improvements, commuter parking lots, traffic flow improvements, bicycle/pedestrian projects and projects that result in emissions reductions. These projects are also federally funded at 80 percent of project costs.
Surface Transportation Program (STP)
These funds are allocated to coordinating regional councils to be used for all roadway and roadway related items. Projects in this funding category must have a local sponsor and are selected based, among other factors, on a ranking scale that takes into account the regional benefits provided by the project among other factors. STP funds are allocated among the following programs: demonstration projects, enhancement, hazard elimination, and urban funds.
State Only Funding
These funds are distributed to municipalities for roadway related projects. The recently initiated Illinois FIRST legislation increases funds available in this category. Elements of the Illinois FIRST program include a fund for locally sponsored projects that improve the quality of life. Other recommended projects such as utility and lighting improvements might be eligible for funds from this facet of the program. While many projects and allocations to legislative districts have already been approved (including the district encompassing the Village of Brookfield), Illinois FIRST is still accepting proposals for additional projects.
OPEN SPACE AND NATURAL RESOURCES
The Village should monitor the Illinois Department of Natural Resources (IDNR)’s programming and funding as a part of the implementation of the 2020 Master Plan. A brief description of the most relevant IDNR programs is given below.
Illinois Department of Natural Resources
The Illinois Department of Natural Resources (IDNR) administers seven grants-in-aid programs to help municipalities and other local agencies provide a number of public outdoor recreation areas and facilities. The programs operate on a cost reimbursement basis to local agencies (government or not-for-profit organization) and are awarded on an annual basis. Local governments can receive one grant per program per year, with no restrictions on the number of local governments that can be funded for a given location. IDNR grants are organized into three major categories: Open Space Lands Acquisition and Development (OSLAD), Boat Access Area Development (BAAD), and Illinois Trails Grant Programs.
- The OSLAD program awards up to fifty percent of project costs up to a maximum of $400,000 for acquisition and $200,000 for development/renovation of such recreation facilities as playgrounds, outdoor nature interpretive areas, campgrounds and fishing piers, park roads and paths, and beaches.
- The BAAD program provides financial assistance for acquisition, construction, expansion and rehabilitation of public boat and canoe access areas. The program provides up to 100 percent of funds for project construction and 90 percent of funds for land acquisition ($200,000 annual maximum per project).
- IDNR administers five grant programs to provide
financial assistance for the acquisition, development, and maintenance
of trails that are used for public recreation uses (bike paths,
snowmobile, off-highway vehicles, motorized and non-motorized
recreational trails, etc.). The Illinois Bicycle Path Program is one
program under this category and provides up to fifty percent of costs
for approved projects (maximum of $200,000 for development, no limit
for acquisition). Another program is the Recreational Trails Program
that provides an eighty percent match to a local twenty percent
investment in projects for acquisition, development rehabilitation and
maintenance of both motorized and non-motorized recreational trails
part of the TEA-21 umbrella program as described in the Transportation and Infrastructure section above).
Foundation and Specialized Grants
The successful implementation of the 2020 Master Plan requires realization of projects that range in scale and scope. One type of funding source that becomes increasingly significant when issue-specific projects or programs (tourism, performing arts, historic preservation, small business assistance, etc.) are considered is foundation grants. The Village should dedicate resources to monitoring and exploring foundation grants as funding tools.
For example, the Village could initiate a commercial façade rehabilitation program through a grant from the Grand Victoria Foundation—the philanthropic arm of the Grand Victoria Casino in the City of Elgin. The foundation’s mission is to “assist communities in their efforts to pursue systemic solutions to problems in specific areas of education, economic development and the environment.” Specifically, the foundation will fund economic development projects that: link workforce development to jobs and job creation; provide greater access to capital and other resources; improve housing and home ownership opportunities; and implement smart growth management. The foundation indicates that priority is given to projects that are regional in scope, employ “best practices,” pursue long-term positive results, and leverage additional investment. Not-for-profit organizations and public entities located in Illinois are eligible for Grand Victoria Foundation grants.